Brown Recluse Spider
0.24 to 0.79 inches (6 to 20 mm)



The Brown Recluse, scientifically known as Loxosceles reclusa, is a distinctive species of spider belonging to the family Sicariidae. These arachnids are part of the vast and diverse Animal Kingdom. Brown Recluses are renowned for their distinctive appearance, potent venom, and reclusive nature.

Within the Animal Kingdom, the Brown Recluse falls under the class Arachnida, which includes spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites. They are further classified as arachnids due to their shared characteristics, such as having eight legs and two main body parts – the cephalothorax and abdomen.

One of the defining features of Brown Recluses is their venomous bite, which can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild irritation to severe tissue necrosis. While fatalities from Brown Recluse bites are rare, their venomous bite makes them a species of medical concern.

Brown Recluses are typically found in the central and southern regions of the United States, where they inhabit hidden and sheltered locations, earning them the “recluse” part of their name. These spiders have adapted to a nocturnal and secretive lifestyle, and they are often encountered in dark, undisturbed areas, such as closets, attics, basements, and woodpiles.

Their unique characteristics, combined with the potential medical significance of their bites, make Brown Recluse spiders an intriguing and occasionally concerning species within the Animal Kingdom.

Critically Endangered
Near Threatened
Least Concern

Physical Characteristics

Brown Recluse spiders are notable for their relatively small size, ranging from about 0.24 to 0.79 inches (6 to 20 mm) in length, excluding their leg span. They have a light to medium brown color, with a distinct darker brown violin-shaped mark on their cephalothorax, which is why they are often referred to as “violin spiders.”

The Brown Recluse spider has a distinctive appearance:

  • Body Color: Light to dark brown, often with a darker violin-shaped mark on its back.
  • Size: Approximately 0.24 to 0.79 inches (6 to 20 mm) in body length.
  • Legs: Eight long, slender legs covered in fine hairs.
  • Eyes: Six eyes are arranged in pairs, unlike most spiders that have eight.
  • Shape: The body is usually oval and lacks obvious markings except for the violin-shaped mark.
  • Venomous: It possesses venom that can cause necrotic skin lesions in some cases.
  • Web: Constructs irregular webs for shelter and egg-laying but does not use webs to catch prey.

The Brown Recluse’s size can vary based on factors such as age and nutrition, and individuals at the larger end of the size range are less common. These spiders are known for their elusive and reclusive nature, often hiding in dark and secluded places.

Please note that accurate identification of the Brown Recluse is essential due to its similar appearance to other non-venomous spiders


The Brown Recluse spider follows a typical spider reproductive cycle:

  1. Courtship: The male Brown Recluse initiates courtship by vibrating its body and tapping on the female’s web. The male approaches cautiously to avoid being mistaken for prey.
  2. Mating: Once courtship is successful, mating occurs. The male transfers sperm to the female using specialized appendages called pedipalps.
  3. Egg-Laying: After mating, the female Brown Recluse prepares to lay eggs. She constructs a silk sac or retreat in a hidden location and deposits her eggs inside. The egg sac can contain around 50 eggs, although this number can vary.
  4. Incubation: The female guards the egg sac and ensures it remains in a suitable environment. The incubation period varies based on factors like temperature and humidity but typically lasts 20 to 30 days.
  5. Hatching: Once the eggs hatch, spiderlings emerge from the sac. These spiderlings are miniature versions of adult Brown Recluses but lack the violin-shaped marking on their backs.
  6. Dispersal: Spiderlings disperse shortly after hatching. They undergo several molts to grow and mature into adult spiders.

The Brown Recluse spider’s reproductive cycle is influenced by environmental conditions and the availability of prey. The number of eggs laid and the success of offspring reaching adulthood can vary. It’s important to note that Brown Recluse spiders have relatively low reproduction rates compared to other spiders.

While Brown Recluse spiders are known for their venomous bites, they typically only bite humans when threatened or provoked, and not during mating or egg-laying activities.


The lifespan of a Brown Recluse spider can vary based on environmental factors and predation risks:

In the Wild:

  • Brown Recluse spiders typically live for about 1 to 2 years in their natural habitat.
  • They face several threats in the wild, including predation by other spiders, insects, and even larger animals. Environmental factors like temperature, humidity, and the availability of prey can also impact their lifespan.
  • Brown Recluses may die from starvation if they are unable to find an adequate food source.

In Captivity:

  • Brown Recluse spiders can live longer in captivity, often reaching up to 3 years or more.
  • In captivity, they are protected from many of the natural predators and environmental challenges they would face in the wild. They are also provided with a consistent food source, which can contribute to their extended lifespan.

Biggest Threats:

  1. Predators: Brown Recluse spiders have several natural predators, including other spiders, insects, and some small mammals and birds.
  2. Habitat Loss: Destruction of their natural habitat due to human activities can threaten their populations.
  3. Pesticides: The use of pesticides in and around homes can kill Brown Recluse spiders, especially when they come into contact with treated surfaces.

It’s worth noting that Brown Recluses are often misunderstood and feared due to their venomous reputation. However, they are generally reclusive and rarely bite humans unless they feel threatened or cornered. While their venom can cause necrotic skin lesions in some cases, severe envenomations are relatively rare.

Eating Habits

The Brown Recluse spider is a carnivorous arachnid with specific eating habits:


  • Brown Recluse spiders primarily feed on small insects and arthropods. Their diet mainly consists of prey such as crickets, cockroaches, beetles, and other small arachnids.
  • They are not web-builders like many other spiders, so they actively hunt for their food rather than waiting for prey to become trapped in a web.

Hunting Behavior:

  1. Ambush Predators: Brown Recluses are ambush predators. They wait patiently for prey to come within striking distance, often hiding in dark, sheltered locations during the day.
  2. Nocturnal: They are nocturnal hunters, meaning they are most active at night when their prey is also active.

Hunting Techniques:

  1. Silk Draglines: While they don’t spin traditional webs to catch prey, Brown Recluse spiders use silk in various ways. They create silk draglines, which they use to explore their environment and retreat quickly to safety if threatened.
  2. Sensory Organs: These spiders have specialized sensory organs that can detect vibrations, allowing them to locate nearby prey.
  3. Bite and Venom: When they encounter prey, they will bite it and inject venom. The venom helps immobilize and digest the prey’s soft tissues.
  4. Predation on Other Spiders: Brown Recluses are known to prey on other spiders, including those of their own species.

Feeding Frequency:

  • Brown Recluses typically do not need to eat frequently. They can survive for weeks or even months without food, depending on environmental conditions and their own metabolic rate.

It’s important to note that Brown Recluse spiders are generally not aggressive toward humans and will only bite in self-defense or when they feel threatened. While their venom can cause necrotic skin lesions in some cases, bites are relatively rare, and severe envenomations are even rarer.


The Brown Recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) possesses several unique characteristics that set it apart from other spiders:

  1. Fiddle-Shaped Markings: One of the most distinctive features of the Brown Recluse is the dark, violin-shaped marking on its cephalothorax (the front part of its body). This marking is why it is often referred to as the “Fiddleback” or “Violin” spider.
  2. Nocturnal Behavior: Brown Recluses are primarily nocturnal, meaning they are most active at night. This behavior allows them to avoid daytime predators and hunt when their prey is also active.
  3. Hunting Style: Unlike many other spiders that build webs to capture prey, Brown Recluses are ambush predators. They wait patiently in concealed locations for unsuspecting prey to come within striking distance.
  4. Venomous Bite: Brown Recluses possess venomous fangs and are one of the few spider species in North America with medically significant venom. Their venom contains enzymes that can break down tissues, potentially leading to necrotic skin lesions in some cases. However, severe envenomations are rare, and most bites result in minor symptoms or no symptoms at all.
  5. Limited Geographic Range: Brown Recluses are found primarily in the central and southern United States. Their distribution is relatively limited compared to other spider species.
  6. Eyes: Brown Recluses have six eyes arranged in pairs, whereas many other spiders have eight eyes. This unique eye arrangement is a key feature for identifying them.
  7. Web-Building Habits: Unlike web-building spiders, Brown Recluses do not create intricate webs for capturing prey. Instead, they use silk for purposes such as creating draglines, constructing retreats, and egg-laying.
  8. Solitary Nature: Brown Recluses are generally solitary and do not exhibit social behaviors like some other spider species.
  9. Cautious Behavior: They are known for their elusive and cautious behavior, often retreating when they sense potential threats rather than displaying aggressive tendencies.
  10. Survival Adaptations: Brown Recluses can survive for extended periods without food, which is an adaptation that helps them endure in their sometimes arid and inhospitable habitats.

These unique characteristics make the Brown Recluse spider an intriguing species within the world of arachnids, but it’s important to note that while they can potentially deliver venomous bites, encounters with humans are typically non-aggressive, and bites are infrequent.

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Brown Recluse Pictures


1. How many types of Brown Recluse spiders are there?

The term “Brown Recluse spider” typically refers to a specific species known as Loxosceles reclusa. However, within this species, there can be some regional variation in appearance. Brown Recluses are often identified by their violin-shaped markings and other characteristics.

While there may be some minor variations in coloration and markings among individual Brown Recluse spiders, they are generally considered a single species with slight regional differences. These differences are not significant enough to classify them as distinct types or subspecies. So, in practical terms, there is one recognized species of Brown Recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa.

2. Are brown recluse spiders dangerous?

Brown recluse spiders are considered dangerous due to their venom, which can cause significant medical issues in humans. The venom of a brown recluse spider contains enzymes that can cause local tissue damage, known as necrosis. However, the level of danger and the severity of a brown recluse bite can vary based on several factors:

  1. Severity of Bites: The majority of brown recluse bites are not serious and heal without severe medical intervention. However, in some cases, the bites can lead to severe skin lesions and systemic symptoms. The venom’s enzymes can destroy skin and underlying soft tissues, leading to a condition known as loxoscelism, which can be particularly problematic if not treated properly.
  2. Symptoms: The initial bite might not be felt immediately and may take several hours to develop noticeable symptoms. The bite site can become red, swollen, and tender. In severe cases, the area around the bite may develop a blue or purple area surrounded by a ring of blanching, followed by a ring of redness, often described as a “bullseye” pattern. Systemic symptoms can include fever, chills, nausea, joint pain, or a general feeling of malaise.
  3. Frequency of Bites and Aggressiveness: Brown recluse spiders are not aggressive and typically bite only when pressed against the skin or disturbed. Bites often occur when putting on clothing or shoes that have not been worn for a while or when moving stored items.
  4. Treatment: Bites should be evaluated by a medical professional, especially if there are signs of severe reaction or if the wound does not heal. Treatment usually involves cleaning the wound and addressing the symptoms. In some cases, medical intervention may be required to manage tissue damage.
  5. Precautionary Measures: To minimize the risk of brown recluse bites, it’s advisable to take precautions such as shaking out clothes and shoes before wearing them, using gloves when handling stored items or debris, and ensuring bed linens do not touch the floor.

While brown recluse spiders are indeed dangerous due to their venomous bites, understanding their behavior, the rarity of severe bites, and the importance of prompt medical treatment can help mitigate the risks associated with these spiders.

3. Is the Brown Recluse poisonous?

The brown recluse spider is venomous, not poisonous. This distinction is important: venomous creatures inject venom into another organism actively, typically through a bite or sting, while poisonous organisms release or contain toxins that can be harmful when touched or ingested.

The brown recluse spider has venom that it can deliver through its fangs when it bites. The venom contains a complex mix of enzymes and other substances that can cause significant local tissue damage (necrosis) and, in rare cases, systemic reactions. The severity of a bite can vary based on factors like the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the individual’s response to the venom.

While the brown recluse’s venom is potent and can cause serious medical issues, the spiders are not aggressive and typically only bite in self-defense if they feel threatened or are accidentally disturbed. It’s always wise to be cautious and respectful around brown recluse spiders and to seek medical attention if you suspect you’ve been bitten.

  • Britannica, Brown Recluse,, retrieved January 2024.
  • Burnie, David & Wilson, Don, Animal, Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC.
  • Hickman et al, Integrated Principle of Zoology, McGraw Hill, Boston.