Coral Snake
18 inches to 3 feet (45 cm to 90 cm)
few ounces to a pound (up to about 0.5 kg)



The Coral Snake, scientifically known as Micrurus, is a highly venomous snake belonging to the Elapidae family within the Animal Kingdom’s class Reptilia. This family also includes other venomous snakes like cobras and mambas. Coral snakes are native to the Americas, with various species found in North and South America.

Coral snakes are easily recognized by their distinctive coloration, featuring bright bands of red, yellow, and black arranged in a specific pattern. The rhyme “Red on yellow, kill a fellow; red on black, venom lack” serves as a mnemonic to distinguish coral snakes from non-venomous mimics like king snakes. Coral snakes have small heads and slender bodies, typically ranging from 1 to 4 feet in length, depending on the species.

These snakes are primarily nocturnal and secretive, often hiding under leaf litter, logs, or rocks during the day. They prey on small reptiles, amphibians, and sometimes other snakes. Coral snakes possess potent neurotoxic venom, delivered through fixed fangs located at the front of their mouths. While bites are rare due to their secretive nature, they can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Conservation Needs and Status

Coral snakes are not typically assessed for conservation needs on a species level due to their relatively stable populations and widespread distribution. However, habitat loss and fragmentation pose threats to some populations, particularly in regions experiencing rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List does not specifically assess coral snakes, as they are not globally threatened or endangered.

Critically Endangered
Near Threatened
Least Concern

Physical Characteristics

The Coral Snake is a distinctively patterned and slender snake with specific physical characteristics:

Physical Appearance:

Body: Coral Snakes have a slender, elongated body with smooth scales, well-suited for burrowing and moving through tight spaces.

Color Pattern: They are most famous for their bright, colorful bands. The pattern typically consists of red, yellow (or white), and black bands that encircle the body. The sequence, often remembered by the rhyme “red touch yellow, kill a fellow; red touch black, venom lack,” helps distinguish them from non-venomous mimics.

Head: The head is small and somewhat indistinct from the neck, with no pronounced bulge or large jaws. It is usually black or has the same tri-color pattern as the body.

Eyes: Their eyes are small with round pupils.

Size and Weight:

Length: Coral Snakes are relatively small compared to other venomous snakes. They typically range from 18 inches to 3 feet (45 cm to 90 cm) in length, with some species reaching slightly longer lengths.

Weight: They are lightweight, usually weighing around a few ounces to a pound (up to about 0.5 kg), varying with age, species, and environment.

The Coral Snake’s physical form, characterized by its bright coloration and slender body, is adapted for a life spent mostly hidden away in leaf litter or underground. Its distinctive pattern serves as a warning to potential predators about its venomous nature. Despite their small size and unassuming appearance, Coral Snakes are an important part of their ecosystems, contributing to the control of small vertebrate populations.


The Coral Snake’s reproductive cycle involves several distinct stages:


Coral Snakes typically mate in the spring. Males may engage in combat for access to receptive females, a behavior seen in many snake species during the breeding season. This combat is generally more about display and posturing rather than causing harm.


After mating, female Coral Snakes go through a gestation period. The duration of gestation in Coral Snakes can vary but generally lasts for a few months, often around 2 to 3 months, depending on the species and environmental factors.

Egg Laying and Incubation:

Unlike many venomous snakes, Coral Snakes lay eggs. The female lays a clutch of eggs, usually in a protected, hidden area like a burrow or under logs. The number of eggs in a clutch can vary, typically ranging from 2 to 12 eggs, depending on the species and the size of the female.

The eggs are left to incubate without any further maternal care. The incubation period lasts for a couple of months, again varying based on species and environmental conditions.


The young Coral Snakes hatch fully formed and are independent from birth. They are equipped with venom from the time they hatch, capable of fending for themselves and hunting small prey.

The reproductive cycle of the Coral Snake, particularly its egg-laying and the independence of the hatchlings, is a key aspect of their life history, ensuring the continuation of the species in their natural habitats. The independence of the young snakes from birth underlines the adaptability and resilience of this species in the wild.


The Coral Snake has a noteworthy lifespan, both in the wild and in captivity:

Lifespan in the Wild:

In their natural habitat, Coral Snakes can live for a significant duration. The average lifespan of a Coral Snake in the wild is typically around 7 to 10 years. However, this can vary based on factors such as environmental conditions and the presence of predators or human interference.

Lifespan in Captivity:

In captivity, where threats from predators are absent and food, as well as healthcare, are regularly provided, Coral Snakes can live longer. They often reach ages of 10 to 15 years, and in some cases, they may live beyond this range in zoos or reptile sanctuaries.

Major Threats:

  1. Habitat Loss: The primary threat to Coral Snakes is the loss of their natural habitat due to urbanization, agricultural expansion, and deforestation. This reduces their areas for hunting and nesting.
  2. Human Conflict: Due to their venomous nature, Coral Snakes are sometimes killed on sight by people, contributing to a decline in their population.
  3. Road Mortality: Road construction through their habitats poses a significant threat, as Coral Snakes often fall victim to vehicle traffic.
  4. Predation: Young Coral Snakes are vulnerable to various predators, including birds of prey and larger snakes.

Despite these threats, Coral Snakes have managed to survive in diverse environments. However, their reclusive nature makes them less visible and less studied, which can be a challenge for conservation efforts. Understanding their ecological role and promoting habitat conservation are crucial for ensuring their survival.

Eatiing Habits

The Coral Snake has specific eating habits that reflect its role as a predator in its ecosystem:


Variety in Prey: Coral Snakes primarily feed on smaller, elongated animals. Their diet mainly consists of other snakes, including non-venomous species and occasionally even other Coral Snakes. They also consume lizards, frogs, and nestling birds when available.

Small and Burrowing Prey: Given their slender body and preference for burrowing, Coral Snakes are well-adapted to hunting prey that lives in similar environments, such as burrowing lizards and snakes.

Hunting Techniques:

Ambush and Active Hunting: Coral Snakes use a combination of ambush and active hunting strategies. They often lie in wait for unsuspecting prey or actively forage in leaf litter and underbrush.

Venomous Bite: Once they encounter prey, Coral Snakes deliver a venomous bite. Their venom is neurotoxic, quickly immobilizing the prey. The venom’s potency allows them to subdue prey effectively before consumption.

Feeding Behavior:

Swallowing Whole: Like most snakes, Coral Snakes swallow their prey whole. Their flexible jaws enable them to consume prey of significant size relative to their head.


Coral Snakes adapt their diet based on the availability of prey in their environment. Their preference for specific prey types aligns with their habitats and hunting abilities.

The Coral Snake’s feeding habits underline its role as a specialized predator in its habitat. Their diet and hunting methods contribute to controlling the populations of various small vertebrates, maintaining ecological balance in the areas they inhabit


The Coral Snake possesses several unique characteristics that distinguish it within the animal kingdom:

Distinctive Coloration: Coral Snakes are known for their vivid color pattern of red, yellow, and black bands. This bright coloration is a form of aposematic signaling, warning potential predators of their venomous nature. The specific sequence of these colors helps differentiate them from non-venomous mimics.

Venom Potency: Coral Snakes have highly potent neurotoxic venom, which is less common among North American venomous snakes, most of which have hemotoxic venom. Their neurotoxin can cause paralysis and respiratory failure, making them very dangerous despite their small size and reclusive nature.

Elapidae Family: They belong to the family Elapidae, which includes some of the world’s most venomous snakes like cobras and mambas. This sets them apart from the more commonly known pit vipers in North America.

Feeding Habits: Coral Snakes have a specialized diet, primarily feeding on other snakes. This preference for ophiophagy (snake-eating) is relatively rare among North American snakes.

Reproduction: They are oviparous, laying eggs instead of giving birth to live young, which is more common among venomous snakes in North America.

Behavior: Coral Snakes are generally shy and elusive, preferring to avoid confrontation. They are more likely to hide or flee than engage when encountered by humans.

Ecological Role: As predators, they play a crucial role in controlling the populations of their prey species, thereby maintaining the balance in their ecosystems.

These unique characteristics highlight the Coral Snake’s distinct place in the biodiversity of its habitat. Their striking coloration, venom potency, and specific ecological niche make them a fascinating yet highly respected species in the animal kingdom.

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Coral Snake Pictures


1. How poisonous is the Coral Snake?

The Coral Snake is highly venomous, known for its potent neurotoxic venom, which sets it apart in terms of toxicity among North American snakes. Here’s a breakdown of its venom toxicity and comparison with other venomous snakes:

1. Venom Composition:

  • Coral Snake venom contains powerful neurotoxins that can disrupt nerve impulses, leading to paralysis and respiratory failure. It affects the nervous system more than the circulatory system, unlike many other venomous snakes.

2. Venom Potency:

  • On a per-milligram basis, Coral Snake venom is one of the most toxic of any North American snake. However, Coral Snakes inject a relatively small amount of venom in a bite compared to other venomous species.

3. Bite Frequency and Danger:

  • Coral Snake bites are rare compared to other venomous snakes, partly due to their reclusive nature and the fact that they have smaller fangs and a less effective venom delivery system. Most Coral Snake bites occur due to handling or accidental stepping on the snake.

4. Comparison with Other Venomous Snakes:

  • Rattlesnakes and Other Pit Vipers: These snakes, found in the same geographic regions as Coral Snakes, have hemotoxic venom that causes tissue damage and internal bleeding. They are more likely to bite and deliver more venom than Coral Snakes.
  • Other Elapids: Internationally, other Elapids like cobras, mambas, and taipans have similarly neurotoxic venom but are often more aggressive and have more efficient venom delivery systems.

5. Medical Treatment:

  • Coral Snake bites require immediate medical attention. While antivenom exists, it must be administered promptly to be effective, given the rapid action of the neurotoxins.

In summary, while the Coral Snake’s venom is extremely potent, the overall danger posed by these snakes is mitigated by their small fangs, limited venom quantity, and reclusive behavior. They are less likely to bite than some other venomous snakes, and incidents involving humans are relatively rare. However, any Coral Snakebite is a serious medical emergency due to the potency of the venom.

2. What is the difference between the coral snake and the kingsnake?

The Coral Snake and the Kingsnake are often confused due to their similar color patterns, but they are distinctly different species with several key differences:

1. Taxonomy and Family:

  • Coral Snake: Belongs to the family Elapidae, which includes venomous snakes like cobras and mambas. They are known for their neurotoxic venom.
  • Kingsnake: Belongs to the family Colubridae, which comprises mostly non-venomous snakes. Kingsnakes are non-venomous and are known for their immunity to the venom of other snakes.

2. Color Pattern:

  • Coral Snake: The color pattern typically follows the sequence of red, yellow, and black bands. A common mnemonic is “red touch yellow, kill a fellow; red touch black, venom lack.”
  • Kingsnake: The color pattern of bands also includes red, black, and yellow (or white) but usually has a different sequence, where the red bands are bordered by black. The mnemonic “red on black, friend of Jack” is often used.

3. Venom:

  • Coral Snake: They are venomous and have potent neurotoxic venom.
  • Kingsnake: They are non-venomous and pose no venomous threat to humans.

4. Behavior:

  • Coral Snake: They are shy, reclusive, and tend to avoid confrontation. Bites are rare and usually occur only when the snake is handled or provoked.
  • Kingsnake: They are also generally non-aggressive towards humans but are known for their aggressive behavior towards other snakes, including venomous species.

5. Head Shape:

  • Coral Snake: They have a small, rounded head that is not distinct from the body.
  • Kingsnake: They have a more pronounced head that is visibly distinct from the neck.

6. Habitat and Range:

  • Both snakes are found in overlapping regions in the southeastern United States, but their specific habitat preferences can differ, with Coral Snakes often favoring more forested and hidden environments.

Understanding these differences is important, especially since Coral Snakes are venomous, and proper identification is crucial in areas where they are present. Despite their similar appearance, the behavioral and biological differences between Coral Snakes and Kingsnakes are significant.

  • Britannica, Coral Snake,, retrieved January 2024.
  • Burnie, David & Wilson, Don, Animal, Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC.
  • Hickman et al, Integrated Principle of Zoology, McGraw Hill, Boston.