4 to 5 feet (1.2 to 1.5 m)
5.6 to 7.5 feet (1.7 to 2.3 m)
240 to 460 lbs (110 to 210 kg)
Weight (Male)
180 to 260 pounds (80 to 120 kg)
Weight (Female)


#Herbivore #Mammals

The Reindeer, scientifically known as Rangifer tarandus, is a species of deer renowned for its adaptation to Arctic and Subarctic regions. Commonly known as Caribou in North America, it holds a unique position within the Cervidae family, which includes other deer such as moose, elk, and white-tailed deer. Reindeer belong to the order Artiodactyla, characterized by even-toed ungulates.

Distinguished by their remarkable antlers, which are present in both males and females—a rare trait among deer—reindeer have become symbols of endurance and survival in harsh climates. Their antlers are large and branched, with a distinctive shape that varies between subspecies. Reindeer are well-adapted to their cold habitats, with thick fur that insulates them against freezing temperatures and large, fur-covered hooves that aid in traversing snowy landscapes.

They inhabit the tundra, taiga, and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere, including regions in North America, Europe, Asia, and Greenland. Reindeer are known for their incredible migratory patterns, with some herds traveling thousands of miles in one of the longest migrations of any land mammal. This migration is essential for accessing different seasonal food sources and calving grounds.

In addition to their ecological importance, reindeer hold significant cultural and economic value, particularly for indigenous peoples in the Arctic regions. They have been domesticated in some areas, and used for transportation, clothing, and food, making them integral to the livelihood and traditions of these communities.

Critically Endangered
Near Threatened
Least Concern

Physical Characteristics

Reindeer, known for their adaptability to Arctic conditions, have distinct physical features. Here’s a description of their appearance, along with their typical sizes and weights:

Physical Appearance:

  • Antlers: Both male and female reindeer grow antlers, which is a unique characteristic among deer species. Males have larger, more branched antlers, while females have smaller, more straightforward antlers.
  • Fur: They have a dense, double-layered coat that insulates them in cold climates. The fur color varies from dark brown in summer to lighter, grayish-brown in winter.
  • Size and Build: Reindeer are medium-sized deer with a strong, sturdy build. They have relatively long legs and a compact body, well-suited for long-distance migration.
  • Hooves: Their broad, fur-covered hooves are notable. They function well in snow, acting like natural snowshoes, and can also be used to dig through snow to find food.

Size and Weight:

  • Height: Reindeer stand about 4 to 5 feet (1.2 to 1.5 meters) tall at the shoulder.
  • Length: From head to rump, they measure approximately 5.6 to 7.5 feet (1.7 to 2.3 meters), with the tail adding another 5 to 8 inches (12 to 20 centimeters).
  • Weight: Their weight can vary significantly depending on the subspecies and region. On average, males weigh between 240 to 460 pounds (110 to 210 kg), and females weigh between 180 to 260 pounds (80 to 120 kg).

Reindeer are well-adapted to their harsh, cold environments, with physical characteristics that support their migratory lifestyle and ability to thrive in Arctic conditions.


The reproductive cycle of reindeer (or caribou) is an essential aspect of their adaptation to the challenging Arctic and Subarctic environments. Here is an overview:

Breeding Season: The breeding season, or rut, for reindeer typically occurs in late September to early November. During this time, males compete for access to females by engaging in displays of strength and dominance, including antler wrestling and vocalizations.

Gestation: After successful mating, the gestation period for reindeer lasts about 230 days, approximately 7.5 months. This timing ensures that the birth of calves coincides with the warmer spring months when food is more plentiful.

Calving: Calving usually takes place from late May to early June. The synchronization of births within a herd is quite remarkable, with most calves born within a short period.

Number of Offspring: Reindeer typically give birth to a single calf. Twins are rare. The calf is born relatively well-developed compared to other deer species, able to stand and walk shortly after birth.

Maternal Care: Female reindeer, or cows, provide significant care to their calves, nursing them for several months. Calves start grazing within a few weeks but remain dependent on their mother’s milk for sustenance.

Weaning and Independence: Calves are weaned at about 6 months of age. They may continue to stay with their mother until the following year’s calf is born.

The reproductive cycle of reindeer is tightly aligned with the seasonal dynamics of their habitats, ensuring that calves are born into an environment with optimal conditions for their growth and survival. This synchronization reflects the species’ remarkable adaptation to its ecological niche.


The lifespan of reindeer (or caribou) varies depending on environmental conditions, predation, and human impacts. Here’s a summary of their typical lifespan in the wild and captivity, and the major threats they face:

Lifespan in the Wild:

  • In the wild, reindeer typically live for about 10 to 15 years. However, their lifespan can be significantly shorter in areas with higher predation or human disturbances.
  • Females generally live longer than males, partly because males expend more energy during the breeding season and are more likely to engage in risky behaviors.

Lifespan in Captivity:

  • In captivity, where they are protected from predators and harsh conditions, reindeer can live longer. They may reach up to 20 years of age, benefiting from regular feeding and veterinary care.

Major Threats:

  • Predation: Calves are particularly vulnerable to predators such as wolves and bears. In some regions, predation significantly impacts calf survival rates.
  • Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Expanding human development, including mining, oil extraction, and road construction, can lead to habitat loss and fragmentation, disrupting migration routes and access to traditional feeding areas.
  • Climate Change: Changes in climate affect food availability, particularly lichen, which is a crucial winter food source. Warmer temperatures can also lead to more parasites and diseases.
  • Human Hunting: In some areas, overhunting or unsustainable hunting practices have led to population declines.
  • Vehicle Collisions: In regions where reindeer migration routes cross roads and highways, vehicle collisions can be a significant mortality factor.

Conservation efforts for reindeer focus on habitat protection, sustainable management of hunting practices, and measures to mitigate climate change impacts. Understanding these threats is crucial to support the conservation and sustainable management of reindeer populations across their range.

Eating Habits

Reindeer, well-adapted to the harsh Arctic and Subarctic environments, have specific eating habits that enable them to thrive in these regions. Here’s an overview of their diet and foraging behavior:


  • Lichen: A staple in the reindeer diet, especially in winter, is lichen, commonly referred to as “reindeer moss.” This slow-growing plant is a crucial food source during the colder months when other vegetation is scarce.
  • Grasses and Plants: In the warmer months, their diet broadens to include a variety of grasses, sedges, herbs, and leaves of shrubs and small trees.
  • Aquatic Plants: Reindeer also feed on aquatic plants in marshy and wetland areas, especially during summer.

Foraging Behavior:

  • Digging: During winter, reindeer use their hooves to dig through snow to access lichen and other vegetation buried underneath. This behavior, known as “cratering,” is essential for survival in winter.
  • Grazing and Browsing: In the summer, they graze on abundant green vegetation and browse on shrubs, taking advantage of the short but productive Arctic summer.
  • Migratory Movement: Reindeer migrations are partly driven by the search for food. They migrate to different areas to access the best available food sources in different seasons.

Adaptations for Feeding:

  • Reindeer have a specialized digestive system as ruminants, with a four-chambered stomach that efficiently processes tough and fibrous plant material.
  • Their keen sense of smell helps them locate food buried under the snow.

The eating habits of reindeer and their ability to find and utilize scarce food resources are key to their survival in the Arctic tundra and taiga. Their dietary flexibility allows them to adapt to the seasonal availability of different food sources in these challenging environments.


Reindeer, known as caribou in North America, are unique in several aspects that set them apart from other deer species:

  1. Antlers in Both Sexes: Unlike most other deer species where only males have antlers, both male and female reindeer grow antlers. This is a rare trait in the deer family.
  2. Adaptation to Arctic Climates: Reindeer are specially adapted to cold environments. They have thick, insulating fur and large, fur-covered hooves that function well in snow, acting like natural snowshoes.
  3. Incredible Migratory Patterns: Reindeer undertake one of the longest migrations of any land mammal, traveling up to thousands of miles to access seasonal feeding grounds.
  4. Diet Specialization: They are particularly adept at finding food in barren landscapes, feeding extensively on lichens (often referred to as reindeer moss) during winter, in addition to grasses and shrubs.
  5. Social Structure: Reindeer are highly social animals, often found in large herds, which can number in the thousands during migrations.
  6. Cultural Significance: Reindeer have a profound cultural and economic importance, especially for indigenous peoples in the Arctic. They are not only a source of food, clothing, and tools but also hold a significant place in cultural traditions and folklore.
  7. Survival Strategies: In the harsh Arctic conditions, reindeer display remarkable resilience. Their behaviors and physical adaptations, such as the ability to reduce their metabolic rate to conserve energy, are key to their survival.
  8. Sensory Adaptations: Reindeer have excellent senses, including sharp vision and a strong sense of smell, which are crucial for navigating their challenging habitats.
  9. Distinct Vocalizations: They produce a range of sounds for communication within the herd, which is essential for maintaining group cohesion, especially during migrations.
  10. Role in Ecosystems: As a keystone species in their habitats, reindeer have a significant impact on the ecological dynamics of the tundra and boreal forests.

These unique features of reindeer reflect their adaptations to life in some of the most extreme environments on Earth and underscore their importance in the cultural and natural heritage of the Arctic and Subarctic regions.

advertisement banner advertisement banner


1. Which animal is most like the reindeer?

The animal most similar to the reindeer (also known as caribou in North America) is the elk, also known as the wapiti. Both are members of the Cervidae family (the deer family) and share several similarities:

  1. Habitat: While reindeer are adapted to Arctic and Subarctic regions, both elk and reindeer inhabit forested areas and are capable of living in harsh climates.
  2. Diet: Both are herbivores, feeding primarily on grasses, leaves, and shrubs. Their diet changes seasonally depending on the availability of different plants.
  3. Migratory Behavior: Reindeer are known for their long migratory patterns, and some elk populations also undertake seasonal migrations to access different food sources or breeding grounds.
  4. Social Structure: Both species can form large groups or herds, which is particularly evident during migrations or in winter months.
  5. Antlers: Both male reindeer and elk grow antlers, which are shed and regrown annually. However, reindeer are unique in that both males and females grow antlers.

Despite these similarities, there are notable differences, such as the reindeer’s more pronounced adaptations for colder environments, including their thicker fur and broader hooves for traversing snow. Additionally, reindeer have a more significant role in the cultures of indigenous Arctic peoples compared to elk.

2. Do reindeer really fly?

Reindeer, known for their association with the Christmas folklore of Santa Claus and his flying sleigh, do not actually fly. This popular and cherished idea of flying reindeer is a part of festive storytelling and myth, rather than a reflection of the animal’s real capabilities.

In reality, reindeer are terrestrial mammals well-adapted to cold environments. They are known for their remarkable endurance and ability to travel long distances across tundra and taiga, which might have contributed to the mythical interpretation of them ‘flying’ across the sky. The legend of Santa Claus and his flying reindeer, including famous names like Rudolph, Dasher, Dancer, and others, is a beloved part of Christmas tradition and culture, celebrated in literature, music, and holiday decorations around the world.

  • Britannica, Reindeer, https://www.britannica.com/animal/reindeer, retrieved January 2024.
  • Burnie, David & Wilson, Don, Animal, Smithsonian Institute, Washington DC.
  • Clutton-Brock, Juliet and Wilson, Don, Mammals, Smithsonian Handbooks, New York, NY.
  • Hickman et al, Integrated Principle of Zoology, McGraw Hill, Boston.
  • Paragon, The Ultimate Guide to Wildlife in North America, Atlantic Publishing, UK.